Russian Revolution – 1917
Russian revolution was one of the paramount events of 20th century. It traced the end of imperial rule and transformed the social and political life of the people. It was a colossal rebellion after French revolution, which not only circumscribed Russia but influenced numerous countries of the world. With this , ideology of Marxism was endowed. A body of work collectively described as Marxism came into being.
This revolution in Russia can be dissected into two parts:
1- Overthrow of Czar Nicholas II .
2- Formation of the world’s first communist state by Bolsheviks under Lenin.
The vindication of the revolution was deep-seated. The Russian economy remained backward due to the corrupted government. The government was dogmatic with Czar, source of all the power and ascendency. The living standards of the people were drastically low with no social freedom. They were pressurized to support the Orthodox Church. This gave birth to first phase of Russian revolution which was popularly known as February revolution. Russia’s disastrous involvement in World War I (1914-18) and its defeat led to the suffering and confusion of the people.
Russian revolution began on March 8, 1917. Petrograd, capital of Russia, went into law and order chaos when demonstrator agitation walk through the street. These revolutionaries were forcibly suppressed by the police, but the people were so much enraged that they were not ready quit and Czar Nicholas II was forced to abnegate.
After Feburary revolution power was shared between Mensheviks group that composed of liberal and democratic elements under the premier ship of Prince Lvov and then Aleksandr Kerensky. On the other hand Bolsheviks, led by Lenin. Aleksandr lost the ground against the Bolshevik’s Social Democratic Labour Party.
The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin seized power in Petrograd on Nov 7, 1917-November Revolution (October Revolution according to the old Russian calendar). The Bolsheviks faced many opposition of the anti Bolshevik party, but extended their authority over large part of European Russia. . This government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry and distributed land, But clashes with the anti Bolshevik resulted into civil war which lasted till 1920. This resulted into end of Bolsheviks and communist party established its authority over the country. The communist took drastic action against the internal enemies. Former land lord, capitalist, Czarist officers, etc were arrested or executed. The Czar and his family was killed.
In 1923 the U.S.S.R came into being that declared the establishment of a republic of worker and peasants. Lenin died in 1924 and was succeeded by Stalin (1924-53).