Mineral and Energy Resources

Introduction:

You have studied that the earth’s crust is made up of different minerals embedded in the rocks. Minerals are a indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything we use from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship all are made from minerals.

Mineral:

Mineral is a “homogenous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure”.

Different modes of occurrence of minerals:

  1. IN IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS
    The minerals occur in the igneous or metamorphic rocks in cracks or faults.
    The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes.
  2. IN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
    The minerals occur on beds or layers in sedimentary rocks, they are formed as a result of deposition and accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.
    Example: gypsum, potash salt, sodium salt.
  3. DECOMPOSITION OF SURFACE ROCKS
    In this mode the minerals are formed by the decomposition of surface rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material.
    Example: bauxite.
  4. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS
    certain minerals occur as alluvial deposits in the sands of the valley.These deposits are called placer deposits.
    Example: tin, gold, silver,etc.
  5. IN OCEAN WATER
    ocean water contain a vast quantites of minearls but most of these are too widely diffused to be of economic significance.
    Example: common salt, magnesium, etc.

 

Distribition of minerals in India:

  • peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
  • Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula in gujrat and assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
  • Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
  • the vast alluvial plains of noth India are almost devoid of economic minerals.

 

Factors of viability of a reserve:

  • concentration of mineral in the ore.
  • the ease in extraction.
  • closeness to the market.

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