India’s Struggle for Independence
India got the freedom after a big struggle with British rulers through various revolutions, wars, movements and acts. Indian public put the every possible effort to liberate the country from foreign rules and violations. Indian revolutions took birth in nineteenth century and growth of the nationalism burgeoning more and more till we people acquired the freedom breath. The first freedom struggle 1857 revolt marked the advent of a new chapter in history of India.
First war of independence (Revolt of 1857) – People from different parts and religions had taken participation in this revolt to brought India a free country. Though, this first movement was unsuccessful but it did bear the spirit of nationalism among the people of country and this was the huge achievement in itself. Establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885 built the strength among the citizens of country towards growth of nationalism and the movement of independence began to take its shape. As the British ownership increased more and more their rudeness became burdening over the Indian people, Congress party started to evolve new plans and ideas to overcome those rudeness.
Divide and Rule– British rulers started to disintegrate the congress party on the basis of religious partitioning. Congress party got wrecked and there was built another party ‘Muslim League’ and rule initiated the distraction of people from their basic agenda of freedom and this was the main point that British rulers wanted. Later in 1916 AD, both National Congress and Muslim League, the two big parties involved in the freedom struggle united once again against the British political party. Independence struggle grew more in the twentieth decade under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, they commenced numerous of movements against the British Government.
Quit India Movement– After the end of Second World War in which Congress provided support to the British Government, and they had promised earlier to release India from their ownership but they refused from this agreement later then National Congress set off the ‘Quit India Movement ‘ (1942)under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi. This is quite revolutionary movement because from this movement British rulers got the idea of Indian strength and integration. Subsequently, they had seen that there were no longer possible chances to stay here and finally decided to quit from India.
Formation of independent state Pakistan- Muslim league had taken the pledge to establish an independent state Pakistan as they feared that the Free State was dominated to Hindus only. In the year 1945-46, beneath the leadership of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim league won all thirty reserved seats for Muslim community in central legislative assembly.
Three man cabinet Mission (1946) – In order to resolve the tie among the National Congress and Muslim League, and transfer power to single Indian administration a three man cabinet mission was formed which drafted the plan for a three tier federation of India. This plans divided India in to three groups as group A includes Hindus based area whereas Group B and Group C comprising Muslim majority areas and each group to be grouped separately possessing high degree of autonomy except for handling critical areas like defence, communications, foreign matters etc.
The plan of dividing into three groups had not become successful because Sikhs wanted their independent state for themselves. Later, Sikh decided to stay within India and brought their demand while Muslims were not accepted this agreement. In March 1947, Lord Mountbatten of the Great Britain came to India and in the wake of civil war decided to split the country into two independent nations. As per this decision, in July 1947, Britain’s Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act and finally in August 1947, the two independent countries India and Pakistan revealed into persistence.