French Revolution

What is French Revolution?
The French Revolution(1789–1799) was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside.

Causes of French revolution
• Economic cause
• Social cause
• Political cause
• Impact of the philosophers

Economic cause
• Tithe:

It was a religious tax from the common people to the church.

Social cause
• The French society was divided into 3 estates:-
1. 1st estate:
The people enjoyed different rights and facilities. But they did not had to pay any type of taxes.
2. 2nd estate:
The people related to noble families come under this estate, they enjoyed different type of rights and facilities but they did not had to pay any type of taxes.
3. 3rd estate:
The farmer and the engineers came under the 3rd estate. And 90% of the population in 3rd estate was the population of farmers. They had to pay different type of taxes but they were not given any type of rights and facilities.

Political cause
• The people of 3rd estate were not given the right of voting.
• Louis had no control over his officers and workers.
• There are different rules and regulations for different person.
• Louis was always evolved towards luxurious life. So, he did not pay attention towards the administration.

Impact of the philosophers
• The important philosophers of this period were Roseou, John, Jean Taques, etc…
• The people for the struggle of equality and the philosophers detected the supremacy of the king. We are born with equality and freedom.

Achievement of Revolution
• The End of the despotic rule of Louis Steenth
• The citizen got the right of freedom and equality
• The French rule came under the ruling of the directory

Active Citizen
The active citizen were those people who had the right to vote and only those people were given the right to vote who paid tax equal to the wage of 3 workers.
Directory
After the French revolution the city organs which ruled the France were known as French Directory.

The work done by National Assembly during 1789-1791
• Making of the French constitution
• Declaration of the human rights
• Restriction on the power of Louis XVI because the powers were disemployed along the legislature and judiciary.

Jacobian Club
It was the place where the discussion of the political issues was done.
Leader of the Jacobian club : Robesperrie
In 1792, the members of JC attacked the place, and the ruler and his supporters were arrested. The JC abolished monarchy and declared France as Republic.
1793-94 was the period of the terror.

Napoleon
• He became famous for the code of law. He introduced tough competition for the appointment of officers and workers. The appointment was now being done on the basis of merit.
• He abolished the privileges on the basis of birth and caste.
• He constructed different roads and arranged transport facilities for smooth trade and commerce.
• He introduced equal law for each and everyone.

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